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This paper considers the effect of contracting limitations in risksharing networks, arising for example from observability, verifiability, complexity or cultural constraints. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for Pareto efficiency under these constraints in a general setting, and we provide an explicit characterization of Pareto efficient bilateral transfer profiles under CARA utility and normally distributed endowments. Our model predicts that network centrality is positively correlated with consumption volatility in large random graphs, as more central agents become quasiinsurance providers to more peripheral agents. The proposed framework has important implications for the empirical specification of risksharing tests, allowing for local risksharing groups that overlap within the village network.

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We propose a new way to quantify the restrictiveness of an economic model, based on how well the model fits simulated, hypothetical data sets. The data sets are drawn at random from a distribution that satisfies some applicationdependent content restrictions (such as that people prefer more money to less). Models that can fit almost all hypothetical data well are not restrictive. To illustrate our approach, we evaluate the restrictiveness of popular behavioral models in two experimental settingscertainty equivalents and initial playand explain how restrictiveness reveals new insights about each of the models.

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We consider a dyadic link formation model with a homophily effect index and a degree heterogeneity index. We provide nonparametric identification results for the potentially nonparametric homophily effect function, the realizations of unobserved individual fixed effects and the unknown distribution of idiosyncratic shocks, up to normalization. We propose a novel form of scale normalization on an arbitrary interquantile range, which is not only theoretically general but also proves particularly convenient for the identification analysis. We then use an inductive “infill and outexpansion” algorithm to establish our main results.

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This paper characterizes the minimax linear estimator of the value of an unknown function at a boundary point of its domain in a Gaussian white noise model under the restriction that the firstorder derivative of the unknown function is Lipschitz continuous. The estimator is obtained through solving a corresponding singleclass modulus problem, which involves optimally configuring the firstorder derivative of the least favorable function at the boundary point, bringing an additional complexity relative to the interiorpoint case. The result is then applied to construct minimax optimal estimators for the regression discontinuity design model, where the parameter of interest involves function values at boundary points.

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This paper develops exact finite sample and asymptotic distributions for structural equation tests based on partially restricted reduced form estimates. Particular attention is given to models with large numbers of instruments, wherein the use of partially restricted reduced form estimates is shown to be especially advantageous in statistical testing even in cases of uniformly weak instruments. Comparisons are made with methods based on unrestricted reduced forms, and numerical computations showing finite sample performance of the tests are reported. Some new results are obtained on inequalities between noncentral chisquared distributions with different degrees of freedom that assist in analytic power comparisons.

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This paper develops a model of risk sharing in which each individual’s income shock is locally shared expost given an exante strategically formed network. Emphasizing the informational constraint of the network such that transfers can only be contingent on local information, the model provides characterizations of the exante efficient network and the pairwise stable networks under the local equal sharing rule. We characterize the efficient and pairwise stable networks: while it is no surprise that the unique efficient network is the complete graph, it is interesting that any pairwise stable network features low average degree and almost 2regular structures, even under individual risk heterogeneity. This suggests that, in realworld networks with average degrees often much larger than 2, risksharing considerations tend to generate negative incentives for network linkage. Moreover, we find that pairwise stable networks are likely to exhibit positive assortativity in terms of risk variances: people of similar income volatility are more likely to be connected in equilibrium.

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This paper proposes a robust method for semiparametric identification and estimation in panel multinomial choice models, where we allow for infinitedimensional fixed effects that enter into consumer utilities in an additively nonseparable way, thus incorporating rich forms of unobserved heterogeneity. Our identification strategy exploits multivariate monotonicity in parametric indexes, and uses the logical contraposition of an intertemporal inequality on choice probabilities to obtain identifying restrictions. We provide a consistent estimation procedure, and demonstrate the practical advantages of our method with simulations and an empirical illustration with the Nielsen data.

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This paper considers a semiparametric model of dyadic network formation under nontransferable utilities (NTU). NTU arises frequently in realworld social interactions that require bilateral consent, but by its nature induces additive nonseparability. We show how unobserved individual heterogeneity in our model can be canceled out without additive separability, using a novel method we call logical differencing. The key idea is to construct events involving the intersection of two mutually exclusive restrictions on the unobserved heterogeneity, based on multivariate monotonicity. We provide a consistent estimator and analyze its performance via simulation, and apply our method to the Nyakatoke risksharing networks.

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We propose a new way to quantify the restrictiveness of an economic model, based on how well the model fits simulated, hypothetical data sets. The data sets are drawn at random from a distribution that satisfies some applicationdependent content restrictions, such as that people prefer more money to less. Models that can fit almost all hypothetical data well are not restrictive. To illustrate our approach, we evaluate the restrictiveness of popular models in two laboratory settings—certainty equivalents and initial play—and in one field setting—takeup of microfinance in Indian villages. We explain how restrictiveness reveals new insights about each of the models.

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This paper considers the asymptotic theory of a semiparametric Mestimator that is generally applicable to models that satisfy a monotonicity condition in one or several parametric indexes. We call it the twostage maximum score (TSMS) estimator, since our estimator involves a firststage nonparametric regression when applied to the binary choice model of Manski (1975, 1985). We characterize the asymptotic distribution of the TSMS estimator, which features phase transitions depending on the dimension and thus the convergence rate of the firststage estimation. We show that the TSMS estimator is asymptotically equivalent to the smoothed maximumscore estimator (Horowitz, 1992) when the dimension of the firststep estimation is relatively low, while still achieving partial rate acceleration relative to the cubicroot rate when the dimension is not too high. Effectively, the firststage nonparametric estimator serves as an imperfect smoothing function on a nonsmooth criterion function, leading to the pivotality of the firststage estimation error with respect to the secondstage convergence rate and asymptotic distribution

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This paper develops a new method for identifying econometric models with partially latent covariates. Such data structures arise in industrial organization and labor economics settings where data are collected using an “inputbased sampling” strategy, e.g., if the sampling unit is one of multiple labor input factors. We show that the latent covariates can be nonparametrically identified, if they are functions of a common shock satisfying some plausible monotonicity assumptions. With the latent covariates identified, semiparametric estimation of the outcome equation proceeds within a standard IV framework that accounts for the endogeneity of the covariates. We illustrate the usefulness of our method using a new application that focuses on the production functions of pharmacies. We find that differences in technology between chains and independent pharmacies may partially explain the observed transformation of the industry structure.

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We propose a theoretical framework under which preference profiles can be meaningfully compared. Specifically, given a finite set of feasible allocations and a preference profile, we first define a ranking vector of an allocation as the vector of all individuals' rankings of this allocation. We then define a partial order on preference profiles and write P>=P', if there exists an onto mapping \psi from the Pareto frontier of P onto the Pareto frontier of P, such that the ranking vector of any Pareto efficient allocation x under P' is weakly dominated by the ranking vector of the image allocation \psi(x) under P. We provide a characterization of the maximal and minimal elements under the partial order. In particular, we illustrate how an individualistic form of social preferences can be maximal in a specific setting. We also discuss how the framework can be further generalized to incorporate additional economic ingredients.

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This paper considers an umbrella theoretical framework under which the problem of network formation and the problem of network bargaining (i.e., the division of surplus obtained in specific network structures) are solved jointly in a consistent way. A network formation solution and a network bargaining solution (together with a disagreement protocol) are defined to be consistent with each other if (1) the networks reached after a counterfactual disagreement are equilibrium networks defined by the network formation solution, and (2) the network allocation rule at each postdisagreement network is determined by further application of the network bargaining solution. Assuming that each disagreement is irreversible, we inductively construct a family of network bargaining solutions that are consistent with pairwise stability and satisfy a fairness condition with respect to endogenously generated outside options. We provide examples under which the proposed solution concept induces novel and realistic theoretical features, such as a Cournot type of “local market power”.

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We consider dynamic distribution regression models for panel data with heterogeneous coefficients across individuals. The objects of interest are functionals of the coefficients including linear projections on individual covariates, crosssectional stationary distributions of the outcome variable of interest, and counterfactual distributions and effects of the outcome variable resulting from manipulating the initial conditions or covariates. The coefficients and their functionals are estimated via fixed effect methods, which are debiased to deal with the incidental parameter problem. We propose a multiplier bootstrap scheme to perform uniform inference on functionvalued functionals. This scheme is computationally attractive because it avoids coefficient reestimation, and is consistent for a large class of data generating processes, including the reference point of coefficient homogeneity. An empirical application using earnings data from the PSID shows that our model predicts significantly smaller effects of tax policies than traditional models based on homogeneous autoregressive processes. A counterfactual experiment which assigns high school degrees to all individuals with less than 12 years of schooling produces an increase of the long run stationary distribution of earnings of up to 15\% at the bottom tail, but has little effect at the upper tail.
